Prince Carlo Filangeri was born May 10, 1784 in Cava de ‘Tirreni (Salerno) by Gaetano known jurist of the Enlightenment, and Catherine Frendel, Hungarian nobleman, called to Naples by Queen Maria Carolina to educate the second daughter.
When his father died in 1788, his mother maintained contacts with the environment and intellectual, she herself taking on the role of teacher to the Latin letters, the children chose for talented teachers: G. Capocasale for philosophy, V. Caravelli and V. Port for the exact sciences. Soon, however, the F. showed a preference for a military career and the Queen granted him in 1797 while he was still a student, the degree of a cavalry officer in the regiment, “Prince Leopold”.
The revolution of 1799 did not fully involved, given his young age, but also brought about a turning point in his life. His participation at the session of the legislative committee that, in the words of D. Cyril and M. Pagano had commemorated his father Gaetano Filangieri, during the first Restoration he was judged, in fact, compromising for the family, despite an edict of forgiveness. So Catherine Frendel, experiencing a climate of hostility, decided to send their children to Spain at the Filangieri brother Antonio, Captain General of the Spanish militias, because then traveling the career of arms (1800). While they were traveling, however, the Spanish king, Charles IV, following the revolutionary events, was denied entry into Spain to the Neapolitans. The boys stopped in Milan, soon became the capital of the Cisalpine Republic. Both greeted with favor, given the reputation of his father, came to France with a letter addressed to the First Consul because there completassero studies. In Paris, the two brothers were admitted to Filangieri Prytaneion, the French military university, then Polytechnic School, where F. soon excelled.
The 18 year snowy XI (Jan. 8. 1803) began his career in the army with the rank of lieutenant in the French 33rd Infantry Regiment, participating in the campaigns of 1803, 1804 and 1805. The December 2 1805 at the Battle of Austerlitz, he obtained the rank of captain on the field and then, for their positive achievements, the patent of lieutenant in the meantime he made some short stays in Naples.
The cessation of hostilities after the Treaty of Pressburg in December 1805 F. he devoted himself to comparative studies of a military character, but was recalled in the Kingdom of Naples after the conquest by the French in February 1806.Arriving in Naples in May, was part of the general staff of the army as a captain and was appointed aide-de-camp to General M. Dumas, Minister of War, delivered at the siege of Gaeta, which ended July 19, he was appointed captain of the volunteer cavalry of the guard of King Joseph Bonaparte and, for valor in the defense of the bridge over the Garigliano, had the Legion of Honor . In the last months of 1807 he collaborated with General Reynier J.-L. in Calabria in the country that continued until the conquest of Reggio.
In October 1807 he had charge of the king’s squire and the Cross of Knight of the Order of the Two Sicilies, and in 1808 was promoted caposquadrone of the General Staff of the army. In July of the same year, became Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain, accompanied the queen Julia Lyon. He then went to Toulouse at Napoleon, and from there to Spain, aggregate the French army in the war against the insurgents Spaniards. He distinguished himself in various tasks, for which he obtained the rank of major, lieutenant colonel and then was chosen by Marshal JBJourdan as deputy chief of the general staff of the army of his body. In November Burgos challenged and killed in a duel General JB Franceschi, guilty of having unflattering expressed on the Neapolitans, and after yet another enthralling encounter with Napoleon, who reproached him for his impulsive character (“head of Vesuvius”), was sent to Naples.
Posted in Abruzzo Citra first to form the provincial militia, May 28, 1810 reached in Palmi, Calabria, King Joachim Murat, took part in the feats of arms of Maida, Scilla and Bagnara gunboats against the British, he became an officer of the order of king and had the Cross of Commander of the Order of the Two Sicilies. In 1811 he left for the expedition against Russia, but in 1812 he was recalled to Naples, threatened the landing of the Anglo-Sicilian, of whom more times repulsed the attacks. On the return of Murat from Russia in November 1813 and before the Austro-Neapolitan F., who was promoted to field marshal July 5, he left for Italy as the vanguard of the central division of Lieutenant General M. Carrascosa, and was stationed first in Ferrara, then in Bologna, Modena and finally at the Austrian Marshal Bellegarde HJ.
During the Italian campaign of 1814 he lived the consequences of the uncertain political Murat, now allied with the Austrians. After many battles on the banks of the Mincio and Taro, now in favor of the Neapolitans now in favor of the Italians of the Viceroy Eugene F. April 24 1814 retired to Bologna with his brigade. 26 Murat appointed him his aide-de-camp. In May, stationed in the Marches, but shortly after he was recalled to Naples to join the military council of the king.
From June to July 1814, it was responsible for many diplomatic missions at the Congress of Vienna and Paris, when the king was still hoping to come out unscathed from the recovery phase of the “legitimacy” in alliance with Austria. The F. had yet to see in both places mistrust of European powers (except Austria) and of French diplomacy in particular (especially Talleyrand), to the Murat, even before Napoleon’s escape from Elba.
After the return of Napoleon at the Murat in Paris in March 1815 opened hostilities against Austria and F. participated in the Italian campaign: April 4, during the march of the troops towards Modena. conquered the bridge of Sant’Ambrogio sul Panaro and was appointed lieutenant general on the field, but, seriously injured, he could no longer continue the war. Delivered in Naples healed, but he was limping on his right leg. During this period he inherited from his aunt Teresa Filangieri conjugated Ravaschieri Fieschi, property in Calabria, formed by the feuds of the Fieschi Ravaschieri which was conjunct the title of Prince of Satriano.
The works in this phase of life and the relationship with the French royal family, the same autobiographical memoirs, written in the Bourbon period, and sometimes repressive phases of the Restoration, or tend to emphasize that, while in the service of Napoleon’s, F. had refused to take up arms against the Bourbons, and that his refusal was respected (but campaigns in Calabria had seen him in the front line against the Anglo-Sicilian) or otherwise to frame his collaboration as a reflection of a fundamental adherence to the role of military, loyal to their sovereign, whoever they were: attitude that his detractors instead considered opportunistic and expression of unbridled ambition. In fact F. was a typical exponent of the generation “Murat” having, until 1815, participated in twelve campaigns, so as to become lieutenant general. It was therefore also in old age always accused of “Napoleon” and brought in the political life of the Kingdom vision of military and administrative footprint French.
In line with the policy of the Bourbons’ “amalgam” inaugurated by the Second Restoration, Murat’s reign ended with the Treaty of Casalanza (20 May 1815), was confennato in grade. With the Restoration, he also began a new phase in the life of F. as these, rather than on the battlefield, he pointed to the diplomatic skills, administrative and business. In view of the reorganization of the army, was in fact appointed in 1815 member of the Board of war, as a member of the disbanded army Murat, and developed a plan based on the obligation of the lever, then rejected by the king. The F. resigned in disagreement on some of the initiatives and the Board was dissolved in 1816.
Designated the Austrian general L. Nugent captain general of the Neapolitan army and war minister, F. he was appointed inspector-general of infantry of the line.
In the unfortunate policy of military Nugent, based on the criteria of savings and based on empirical rules and fragmentary, F. attributed the spread of the Carbonari in the army got wind of that well before 1820. In 1818 he had the Grand Cross of the Order of St. George and May 1820 he was admitted to the court as a gentleman of the king’s chamber. The April 6 Agatha married in 1820 in Palermo Moncada, daughter of the Prince of Paternò.
After July 2, 1820, when the revolt broke out in Nola, he remained loyal to the king and worked for the control of public order in the capital. He accepted the “nonimestre” some military assignments: July 12 had the command of the royal guard, the 14 command of the infantry of the guard, 17, was placed at the head of the junta was to purify the army by the suspects, but resigned because I saw a persecutory intent to the most devoted to the king. Unable to find their place, attacked by the press on August 14, renounced all “assignments, grades and military applications” (Moscati, 1933, p. 37), but the resignation was rejected by the vicar-general, the Duke of Calabria. Known the proclamation of Ljubljana, 21 Febr.1821 with which Ferdinand urged the Neapolitans to accommodate the Austrians, who were about to invade the Kingdom, as allies, F. argued that they had to be fought and therefore was later dismissed.
After the defeat of the constitutional government of F. was relieved from the command of the royal guard March 27, 1821, subject to the addition of scrutiny, stripped of all rank and honor by decree of July 29, 1821. He went posthumously accused of ties with Murat attacked by the press, both liberal is Bourbon, retired, then, in his possessions Calabria, and in the woods of Razzona, a Cardinal, gave rise, probably in the second half of the twenties, a small ironworks.
Returning to Naples, he tried to give life to various factories in Calabria come by artisans and materials from other States: planted a soap factory, a steam mill, a glass factory, and in 1837, as a shareholder of the Company industrial Naples, a manufacture of textiles flax, hemp and cotton Sarno activities that failed and absorbed all his property, but that show some sensitivity entrepreneurship.
In those years, the F. also intervened in the debate between protectionists and free traders in favor of the first and major public and private monopolies interested in the development of a national steel industry, directing against the liberal ML Rotondi, author of the anonymous Reflections on economic iron (Naples 1838), aresponse to the reflections economic on the iron (ibid. 1838).
With the advent to the throne of Ferdinand II (1830), in the climate of renewal of the early years of the reign, which included the recovery in the political life of many former murattiani, F. had been called back to court Jan. 11. 1831. Reinstated in the rank of lieutenant general, he received the Order of St. Gennaro and had the task to examine the possible readmission of dismissed officers. He was a member of the Diet of the generals in charge of reorganizing the army, and ruled until 1849, the Directorate General of voluntary bodies, artillery and engineering.
He renewed the military college of Naples, which he added a riding school, favored the study of military history, but mostly worked for the resolution of the problems of the artillery. In Castelnuovo arose a room models of weapons and in 1845 was published in the Naples’ Atlas of the new artillery system , with 72 tables, work that found an outlet in the practical simulation of a siege of Capua. He took care establishments and manufacturers of military weapons, modernized the works of defense of the Kingdom, making it impregnable Gaeta, improved fortresses, hospitals and barracks, brought new life to the topographical bureau set up by the Rizzi-Zannoni, gave rise to the arsenal, the foundry and other important military buildings. He favored the installation of Pietrarsa workshop and a school theory and practice of drivers, which proved to be useful even after the Unification of Italy.
At the outbreak of the riots of 1848, with the revolution in Sicily and then Naples, F.was among those who pushed Ferdinand II to grant a constitution of 10 February.During subsequent negotiations for a league of Italian princes, and after the declaration of war on Austria F. offered to lead the two divisions of infantry and cavalry which were to join the Piedmontese soldiers, but the object of attacks by the press, they saw prefer G. Pepe, who was returning to Naples after twenty-eight years of exile, and in April resigned.
Summoned by the King after the reaction of 15 May, on August 26 he was given command of the troops on land and sea for the expedition to Sicily, to regain ground after the uprising of 12 January and the declaration of independence from Naples.On 8 September, after repeated assaults, took possession of Messina and the surrounding areas, then tried to reintroduce an ordinary administration of justice and administration in the occupied area, worked in favor of the trade, but he had to defend himself against accusations in the press foreign, according to which the city was bombed for eight consecutive hours after the surrender, which earned him the sovereign the title of “king bomb.” A subsequent truce, which lasted until March 29, did not get the pacification of the island, as the Sicilian government rejected the instrumental constitutional concessions promised by the king; F. therefore continued to advance toward Palermo, opposed in vain by the troops commanded by General L. Mierosllawski. Awarded the capitulation, he tried to restore order on the island, allowing for some forgiveness, reopening courts and offices, rearming the town watch, but opponents pointed out the looting and the burning of Catania, the work of courts-martial, the ease with which the death penalty was applied.
On 15 May 1849, the F. entered in Palermo. For this undertaking, by decree of July 19, 1849, he was conferred the title of Duke of Taormina, with a budget of 12,000 ducats of rent and the Grand Cordon of St. Ferdinand.
He remained in the government of the island with the title of lieutenant-general, devoting himself to an intense work of reconstruction, in view of the independence of the administrative Sicily. That this was his aim was also recognized by historians hostile to him, he remarked, however, that once again opportunism, because, looking good from opposing the intrusion of the sovereign, F. ended to give his governorship the characteristics of a military dictatorship (Finocchiaro, p. 337-341).In contrast to other historians, such as G. De Sivo, accused him of tolerating hopes for autonomy.
The Lieutenant F. had a profound influence on the life of the island to the reorganization carried out in various fields, from finance to schools and universities, to commercial. From ancient Murat, F. worked mainly in the political-administrative autonomy lost by returning to Sicily in 1837, “trying to push forward, although with limited success, the remaining state-owned operations, even managing to reconcile provisionally at a fraction of the monarchy, aristocracy of Palermo, irritated and frightened by the democratic tendencies have arisen in 1848 “(Romeo, p. 358 ff.). In essence, however, as claimed by the Romeo he, “despite some Platonic attitude constitutional, was and remained minister of absolutism absolutist intimately …”, for her to feel the fear ” element of government with perverse “for ordering shootings of Jan. 28. 1850, having supported the arbitrariness of the police.
Hampered by the military court, who had ironically nicknamed Charles I, and the Minister of Sicily to Naples, Messina, G. Cassisi, F. resigned when it was opened an investigation, especially accounting, management luogotenenziale, the results of which were published in 1855. After six years of government of the island, 12 Febr.1855 was granted the withdrawal and also accepted his resignation as general. The F. then returned to private life, settling in Ischia.
Although it did not cover any office now, he was often consulted by the king.Ferdinand II died May 22, 1859, the new king Francis II, after the riots of June 7 in Naples, while the war was in full swing in England, he was appointed President of the Council of Ministers and Minister of War. The F. he was surrounded by men chosen by him, but merely to accept the new directors imposed by the king, his involvement was emblematic of the aging cadres Bourbon since still operated in the higher grades and military officials formed during the French decade.
Certainly in May 1859 at a critical time, appeared as the only equipped with the intelligence and experience requirements necessary to rearrange the State, as an individual accustomed to be guided by a moral fundamentally correct. He was considered the right man by both liberal circles and circles Neapolitan exiles and migrants in Turin, and the autonomists, the French Government and by the Piedmont and in some ways by the same reactionary forces, since everyone was referring to episodes and different stages of his life, and F. ably had prepared the ground for a call to the ministry due, rather than the decision of Francis II, the political circumstances. During this period meant that the legion was disbanded by King Swiss and other regiments were formed of Naples (two infantry and two hunters) and succeeded in obtaining a decree of June 16, 1859, the abolition of the lists of “trusted” , whose effects were, however, canceled by circular box, which prescribed the police officers to consult, where appropriate registers and lists of suspects.
In contrast to the pro-Austrian faction that was headed by the queen mother Maria Theresa, he tried to resume relations with France and England, fearful of a revival of Muratism in the Kingdom. Fear shared on the other hand by C. Cavour, who attempted to ally with the Bourbons and sent out in May 1859 R. Gabaleo, Earl of Salmour, on a mission to the new king.
They come to F. awarded in this period is the work of diplomatic rapprochement with France is the pressure on the King to grant constitutional status. In fact the steps of Salmour and the French representative A. BRENIER were “incurred only very lukewarm and dubious good faith by Filangieri” and “very mild” were his references to the king about the benefits of the draft statute prepared by G.Manna, on which he made only “cautious polls” (Moscati, 1960, p. 60).
On September 5, he asked for a leave for health reasons, but, nevertheless, throughout the following period influenced the most important decisions taken by the king. Unlike those who, following the Count of Trani, were supporters of the resistance to the bitter end, the F. drove the more moderate. The resignation, offered repeatedly since October, were accepted by the king in January 1860 and made public only March 10th, during these two months he went from his refuge in Pozzopiano to perform the duties of the Minister of War with Effects “crippling” sector ( ibid., 1960, p. 69). Became aware of the designs of Garibaldi against the Kingdom of Naples, tried in vain to induce the king to use the card to obtain the support of the Statute of Napoleon III.
In the spring of 1860 became part of the reorganized State Council, and advocated a reconquest “moral” of Sicily. Garibaldi arrived in the island, F. opposed the proposal of A. Nunziante and L. Latour bomb Palermo. Not heard by the king, who was under the influence of his courtiers, he retired to Pozzuoli, refusing to take command of the Neapolitan army in Sicily.
While in Naples June 25 was promulgated the constitution was formed and the Ministry of A. Spinelli, there were riots, but the F. was never consulted by the king, who now distrusted him. It was considered too dangerous by L. Romano, who advised her removal, from Naples, 11 ag. In 1860 he was therefore allowed to leave with his wife for Marseille. From there the couple went to the island of Hyeres, where they lived for a few months, then, while his wife returned to Naples with her daughters Caroline and Joanna F. his son Gaetano went to Florence with her daughter Teresa. Here he remained until December 3 1862 when he returned to Naples, where his wife had died.
Recalled in assets from General A. Lamarmora and M. Fanti in 1865 to prepare studies on the army, drew up the active Army Composition of the Army of Italy :studies and projects that were presented to me by the Minister of War of the Kingdom of Italy . In 1866 and the early months of 1867 he began a correspondence with General GS Pianell sorting the Italian army.
He died of heart attack in the summer residence of San Giorgio a Cremano (province of Naples), October 10 , 1867.
Works: The ‘ Autobiography manuscript is preserved in Naples at the Library of the Society of Neapolitan history homeland; i remember military were published by his daughter Teresa Filangieri Fieschi Ravaschieri in the volume The general C . F .Prince of Satriano and Duke of Taormina , Milan 1902 . The F. was the author of numerous reports on the major political and military events in which he participated and reflections on the political, military strategy and technique, and had an extensive correspondence with many important figures, not only in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, this abundant material is present in various archives, especially those of the Museum “Gaetano Filangieri.” I’m at F. also assigned the anonymous Memoirs Istoriche to serve the Sicilian revolution of one thousand eight hundred forty-eight – in 1849 , sl [Pisa] 1853.
Sources and Bibl .: Arch State of Naples, Archive Bourbon , to Indicem ; Ibid.,Archive Serra di Gerace , vol. V, p. 1743 vol. 90, Naples, Arch of the Museum “Gaetano Filangieri,” Mss ., Marquis Caccavone, Life of C . Filangieri .
Given the long and constant presence of F. in the political life of the Kingdom, references to him are in many works Sull’Ottocento Naples. The biographies are almost all hagiographic and give ample space to the description of battles and tactical skill and strategic F.; important points and critical revisions are due to R.Moscati (1933) and A. Saladin (1960). In particular, see: Nobiliaire , slsd, pp. 418 ff. L. Bianchini, On the state of the ironworks of the Kingdom of Naples , in the progress of science , literature and the arts , Naples, 1834, p. 118 s., A. Santoro,Speeches on the occasion of the name day of his Excellency . C . F ., Naples 1837 G. Giucci, Italian Scientists forming part of the Seventh Congress in the autumn of MDCCCXLV Naples , Naples, 1845, p. 25-28; Biography C . F ., Naples 1849 H. de la Garde, Le général F ., Turin 1858 G. The Cecilia Brief biography of Lieutenant General C . F ., Naples 1867, P. Calà Ulloa, C Di . F . history of our times , Naples 1871 A. von Reumont, Don C . F . Fürst von Satriano , in Biographische Denkblätter …, Leipzig 1878, p. 75-126; C. De Lellis, House Filangieri , edited by B.Candida Gonzaga, Naples, 1887, p. 323 ff., M. Amari, Correspondence , edited by A.D’Ancona, I, Turin 1896, p. 310, 589, R. De Cesare, The end of a kingdom , Città di Castello 1909, p. 302 ff., 327, 370; V. Finocchiaro, The Sicilian revolution of 1848 –49 and the expedition of General F ., Catania 1906 G. Ferrarelli, Military Memoirs of Southern Italy , edited by B. Cross, Bari, 1911, p. 258-267, N. Cortese, Memoirs of a General of the Republic and the Empire . Francesco Pignatelli, Prince of Stroud , I-II, Bari, 1927, to Indicem , R. Moscati, General C . F . Neapolitan Revolution in 1820 , in Rass . stor . nap ., The (1933), p. 25-41, A. Omodeo Defense of the Risorgimento , Turin 1951, p. 369-399, P. Colletta, History of the Kingdom of Naples , edited by N. Cortese, Naples 1957 II, p. 430, 450 s., III, to Indicem ;Documentary sources for the history of the Neapolitan sec . XIX . The sunset of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the private correspondence of Francis II and C. F ., edited by A. Saladin, Naples 1960; G. Candeloro, History of modern Italy … Milan 1960-64, III, p. 361 s., 428 s., IV, p. 40-43, 418-421, A. Saladin, the last defense of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( August – September 1860 ), Naples 1960 to Ind ., R. Moscati, The End of the Kingdom of Naples , Naples 1960 to Indicem ; Correspondence C . Cavour : cf. the ‘ Index in January . early 15 vols . (the 1,926th – one thousand nine hundred fifty-four ), Bologna, 1961, to nomen ; P.Pieri, Military history of the Risorgimento , Turin, 1962, to Indicem ; N.Cortese,The South and the Italian Risorgimento , Naples, 1965, p. 210, 214, 299, 347, 399, R. Romeo, The Risorgimento in Sicily , Bari 1982, p. 336, 351, 358, 359 n.; JA Davis, companies and entrepreneurs in the United Bourbon 1815/1860 , Bari 1979, p. 140 G. Ruby, The factories of the South , Naples, 1990, pp.. 149-153, A.Scirocco, Brigands and society in the nineteenth century : the case Calabria , Lecce 1991, pp.. 17 s., 80 s., 90.
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